Chola temple architecture pdf

It is one of the largest temples in south india located 350 kilometres southwest of the city of chennai. The temples testify to the brilliant achievements of the chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting. The style of temple architecture that became popular in northern india is. The brihadisvara temple at thanjavur is a hindu temple dedicated to shiva. This chola temple is bigger than any of the previous pallava, chalukya or pandya structures. Thus we can see that south india has wonderful works of dravidian architecture worth watching. Architecture under the cholas a special feature of the chola architecture is the purity of the artistic tradition. It is only after this date that each began to evolve in its own different direction. Temple shrine on the koneswaram temple promontory extremity and the ketheeswaram temple and munneswaram temple compounds contained tall gopuram towers by chola rule of trincomalee, mannar, puttalam and chidambarams expansion that escalated the building of those syncretic latter styles of dravidian architecture seen across the continent pictured. This resource includes a slide of a chola temple no. Pdf cholas, pandyas, and imperial temple culture in medieval. The development of the bhakti cult in the form of saivism and vaishnavism resulted in the worship of idols and construction of temples. Chera chola pandya history in tamil pdf download 156c1n.

During this golden age, the artsmusic and dance, poetry and drama, architecture and sculptureflourished. Many distinctive features that we find in the architecture today developed throughout the long period of indian history. In the evolution of the chola temple architecture we can roughly see three major phases. The south indian temples have made a rich contribution to temple architecture in india. The brihadeshwara temple rajrajeshwara temple at tanjore is classic example of dravida style of architecture under chola empire. Great living chola temples unesco world heritage centre. Chola art and style of architecture india the destiny. Temple architecture and sculpture hindu, buddhist and jain. Great living chola temples wikimili, the best wikipedia. In a small portion of the kaveri belt between tiruchytanjorekumbakonam, at the. The thirunelli temple, the vadakkunnathan temples, kodungallur bhagavathy temple and kandiyur siva temple are its examples.

The cholas ruled the deccan and emerged victorious among many other kingdoms such as pallavas, pandyas, chalukyas, rashtrakutas. The chera style of architecture is only one of its kind in dravidian architecture. This was a commemorative temple constructed after the victory of the cholas over the gangas. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking po, ssc, state civil services exams and so on. Cholas have incorporated sculpture into the design of their temples at 9th century. In most of the chola temples, for example, the sculptural and architectural. We can see all these features at muvarkovil temple to know the glory of chola temple architecture. That is, about a hundred years or so after the small temples we just learnt about in sanchi and udaigiri. Built on a scale appropriate enough to house the presiding deity, sri brihadeesvara, or the lord of the universe, the temple continues to excite wonder at its many unique architectural features and living presence as a centre of saiva devotion. The size of the temple was huge and the tower itself 190ft high. The dvarapalas, or guardian figures, at the entrance to the mandapa, or hall which started from the palava period became a unique feature of the chola temples the dravidian style got fully developed after a transition from the rock cut structures of the pallava period. The first seeds of dravidian temple architecture in tamil nadu were possibly sown during this period. Dec 06, 2017 moovar koil another milestone in the early medieval chola architecture is located at kodumbalur near from pudukkottai and was constructed in the 10 th century by a chola general.

Thus, the kailasanathar temple began a new tradition in india where the kings took deep interest in building the temples with great structural design and antiquity. Pdf the art and architectures along the tamil nadu coast. View of the sri vimana of the brihadeeswarar temple the brihadisvara temple at thanjavur is a hindu temple dedicated to shiva. Posted on june 24, 2017 august 5, 2017 by pendem srinivas. Thanjavur, gangaikondacholapuram and darasuram on 22nd april 1010, the 25th regnal year of the chola king arunmolivarmanbetter known by his title rajaraja, the king of kingsinstalled a goldplated potfinial on the summit of a monumental new temple in the city of thanjavur, consecrating one of the grandest temples ever built in india. Three styles of indian architecture structural temples are classified from different points of view. Completed between early 11th and the 12th century ce, the monuments include the brihadisvara temple at thanjavur, the temple of gangaikonda cholapuram and the airavatesvara temple at darasuram. Chola temple architecture is an important part of dravidian temple architecture. Cholan craftsmenship extended beyond temple architecture to include bronze image making. Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as. Massive grandeur and huge structures decorated with minute sculptures are characteristics of chola art. The brihadisvara temples are situated at thanjavur, the ancient capital of the chola kings. A hindu temple, dedicated to shiva is located in thanjavur, tamil nadu, india, brihadisvara temple was built between 1003 and 1010 ad by raja raja chola i. Chola architecture brihadeeswara temple thanjavur ad the brihadeeswara.

Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. King rajaraja chola constructed the brihadisvara temple in 10 th century a. Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of rajaraja chola and his son rajendra. The magnificent hoysala temple bears testimony to the fact that the new rulers copied many features of the cholan temple architecture. Muvarkovil, pudukkottai muvarkovil literally means temple of three. It is one of the largest south indian temples and an exemplary example of fully realized tamil architecture. The chola artists and artisans further drew their influences from other contemporary art and architectural schools and elevated the dravidian temple design to greater heights. Looking at it, one has to redefine the normal notions of size. The maturity and grandeur to which the chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of tanjavur and gangaikondacholapuram. The base of the temple has the pictures of dancing shiva and stone deities. The earliest and most remarkable evidence of indian architecture is found in the cities of the harappan civilization which boast of a unique town planning. Architecture the chitrolekha journal on art and design. The brihadeswara or rajarajeswara temple of shiva in tanjore built by rajaraja chola in 1010 a. The temple was built years ago on the basis of dravidian architecture.

One of the most spectacular piece of south indian architecture, with due respect to the vijayanagara and pallava kingdoms, is the brihadeeswara temple in tanjavur. Uraiyur now tiruchchirappalli was its oldest capital. Temple architecture in india ncert notes pdf download. Chola period are in a good state of preservation, and many more are still active. All the structures on this glorious chola temple grounds are squareshaped. Among the kings of chola dynasty, rajaraja chola was a great ruler, who gave the great boost to the chola. May 23, 20 this temple was built by parantaka chola i. Let us now turn to a region where the north indian style of temple architecture developed in an interesting direction.

The dravidian temple architecture started by the pallavas got matured at the hand of the cholas. At the same site, the king also constructed a lake like a tank that spreads over 22 km, which was also known as the jalmay vijaystambh literally meaning the victory. It literally means wombhouse and is a cave like sanctum. Although the main deity in the temple is shiva there are also other deities prayed here, such as durga, surya and vishnu, to name a few. Temple architecture and sculpture art and culture for upsc ncert notes on important topics for the upsc civil services exam preparation. Temple architecture in india ncert notes most of the art and architectural remains that survive from ancient and medieval india are religious in nature. Moovar koil another milestone in the early medieval chola architecture is located at kodumbalur near from pudukkottai and was constructed in the 10 th century by a chola general. The original chola paintings, so far brought to surface, are mainly in the corridors of the ambulatory around the sanctum. Dravida temple architecture origin and development. The great living chola temples is a unesco world heritage site designation for a group of chola dynasty era hindu temples in the indian state of tamil nadu. The original monuments of this 11th century temple were built around a moat. These chola temples reveal the gradual evolution of the chola art and architecture.

This temple inspired rajraja chola i to built another great beauty brihadeshwar temple at tanjore. Temples cholas architecture thanjavur the greatest of chola emperors rajarajai 985 a. Airavateshvar temple is hindu temple of dravidian architecture. Among the kings of chola dynasty, rajaraja chola was a great ruler, who gave the great boost to the chola sculptures and architecture. Chola temple architecture chola art was an extension of the pallava era cholas building several 100 temples, some of which were modest in size while others were massive with vimanas or gopuras chola architecture is epitomised by the temple of koranganatha at trichinopoly constructed by parantaka i.

Rajendra chola built a temple at gangaikonda cholapuram which is also equally famous. Chola architecture 900 1150 ad prepared by roopa chikkalgi. Situated in the southern state of tamil nadu, this world heritage site comprises the three great 11 th and 12 th century chola temples. Jan 17, 2019 the nageswaran temple, built by aditya chola, is older than the big temple by 100 years and because of waterblasting, we have lost many early chola treasures. The three chola temples in india are exemplary production in the dravidian style of temple architecture. Temple architecture and sculpture 6 today when we say temple in english we generally mean a devalaya, devkula mandir, kovil, deol, devasthanam or prasada depending on which part of india we are in. The base of this temple has the sculpted mythical animals yazhi. King rajendra chola added credit to the chola art and architecture. Ncert notes temple architecture and sculpture part3. Built in the early 11th century, the two magnificent temples at thanjavur and the gangaikonda cholapuram in tiruchirapalli district show the best of chola art and architecture. The temple shiva at gangaikonda cholapuram built by rajendra 1 chola 1018 to 1033 a.

Chola temples the brihadishvara temple at thanjavur was built by the potent ruler of the chola dynasty, king rajaraja chola in the year 1010 ad. Rajendra chola 1 built the rajaraja temple at thanjur after his own name. Chola temples chola bronze sculptures were intended for temple ritual. D the son of sundara chola parantakaaii and vanavanmahadevi built this magnificent temple named brihadisvaram at tanjore the capital of chola dynasty. The legendary king karikan was the common ancestor through whom. Mar 23, 2017 chola architecture 900 1150 adthe capital of the chola dynasty was the city of thanjavur from 836 1267 ad the great temple of thanjavur was founded by rajaraja i. The temple architecture evolved from the early cave temples and monolith temples of mamallapuram to the kailasanatha and vaikuntaperumal temples of kanchipuram. The first chola ruler vijayalaya chola built temple at narttamalai. They are on the south, north and western walls of the sanctum. It was commissioned by parantaka chola ii or one of his feudatories.

Chola dynasty, south indian tamil rulers of unknown antiquity, antedating the early sangam poems c. It is one of the finest examples of the early chola temple architecture. Brihadeeswara temple was constructed by rajaraja chola i and was designed by kunjara mallan raja rama perunthachan. Most of the chola temples were carved in the temple walls. In later period maratta and nayaks rulers constructed various shrines and gopurams of the. Moovar koil meaning temple of three gods in tamil, this temple complex had. The temple was constructed by rajaraja chola and was dedicated to lord shiva. The chola school of art also spread to southeast asia and influenced the architecture and art of southeast asia. Features of temple architecture of the chola empire. It is the largest and tallest of all indian temples. The cholas built their temples in the traditional way of the pallava dynasty, who were themselves influenced by the amaravati school of architecture. Classification of indian temples temple architecture in india ncert notes pdf download. The magnificent temple of brihadisvara at thanjavur is a splendorous jewel of indian temple art and architecture.

The brihadeesvara temple stands as a supreme example of chola architecture. Some prominent features of temple architecture in the chola dynasty are enunciated here. Culture and heritage monuments chola temples know india. Dakshina meru sudha jagannath brihannayika culture resource, new delhi the brihadeesvara temple stands as a supreme example of chola architecture. Chola architecture 900 1150 adthe capital of the chola dynasty was the city of thanjavur from 836 1267 ad the great temple of thanjavur was founded by rajaraja i. The chola temple architecture has been appreciated for its magnificence as well as delicate workmanship. The great living chola temples were built by kings of the chola empire, which stretched over all of south india and the neighbouring islands. Yazhi is a recurring pattern and unique feature of chola architecture. Oct 26, 2017 features of temple architecture of the chola empire. The site includes three great 11th and 12thcentury temples.

The cholas are acclaimed as the premier patrons of religious art and architecture in medieval tamilnadu stein 1980, 230, 36465. Gangaikondan cholapuram temple is another such example. Pallavas were the first recognisable south indian dynasty who indulged in the pursuit of architectural innovations. He constructed brihadiswara temple with huge architecture. This temple was constructed by shri rajendra chola, the son of sri raja rajeshwara. Pdf this study focuses on coastal regions of tamil nadu art and architecture. Jun 24, 2017 rajaraja chola and brihadiswara temple. It is the greatest step taken by rajaraja chola in the evolution of temple architecture in the south. Temple architecture of india by nandini maharaj unacademy plus. The dynasty originated in the rich kaveri cauvery river valley. The nageswaran temple, built by aditya chola, is older than the big temple by 100 years and because of waterblasting, we have lost many early chola treasures. A new development was the addition of a gateway or gopuram to the walled enclosure of the temple. The architecture style of the brihadisvara temple is a square design plan, depicting the infamous dravidian style of the architecture. The decline of the pallavas in the 9th century created a political vacuum which was filled by the cholas.

A lot of temples were constructed during the chola period. Built by raja raja chola i between 1003 and 1010 ad. Brhadeeswara temple 1 brihadeeswara temple, thanjavur brihadeeswara temple is located in thanjavur, a city in tamil nadu. Moovar koil meaning temple of three gods in tamil, this temple complex had three temples only two of which survive today.

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